There are two types of elements of job design as described below.
01. Efficiency Elements
This includes division of labor, specialization and standardization. Mainly efficiency elements focus on improving the productivity of the employee.
02. Behavioral Elements
This is the opposite of the above-mentioned efficiency elements. This focuses on increasing the job satisfaction and the morale of the employee. Indeed, this may motivate employees. Behavioral elements include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback.
More details on each element can be mentioned as follows.
01. Division of Labor
Breaking jobs into their smaller components and employing separate person or separate set of employees to commit each part of the production process separately.
Example: Production process in a garment factory.
The “One best way” to perform a certain job/ task/ duty with more simplicity and at a lower cost and then, having accepted that “One best way” by every person and follow it.
An employee’s concentration on one particular type of work so that the employee acquires an expertise in that type of work. Productivity of specialized employees is higher than other employees.
04. Skill Variety
The extent to which the job requires use of different skills.
Example: Usage of communicational skills, interpersonal skills and conceptual skills.
05. Task Identity
The extent to which the job involves doing some complete piece of work.
06. Task Significance
The extent to which the job has an impact on other peoples’ work. If the job is highly link with others’ jobs, then it has a high level of significance.
The degree of independence and freedom the jobholder has. This means, decision making power that the job holder has regarding own job.
The extent to which clear information of results in respect of individual contribution is provided. If the employees know about their results, they will work better and it is a one way of developing future performance as well.